Most of contemporary diseases are related to disorders in microbiome and, accordingly, microbial ecology, using molecular tools, has become one of the leading branches in human disease research. The role of the Laboratory will be to determine the role of microorganisms in the quality of life in different populations, to explore the mechanisms of interaction of intestinal microbiome and human organism and the role of microbiome in the emergence of complex diseases. The Laboratory will also explore the role of microorganisms in the impact on the environment, exploring nutritional habits of populations of the past and microbiological factors that affect the quality of the archaeological sites.