Presentation number: AG 1
MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPROACH IN THE APPLICATION OF ETHICAL STANDARDS IN ANCIENT DNA RESEARCH
Ante Lozina, Željana Bašić, Ivana Kružić
University of Split, University Department of Forensic Sciences, Split, Croatia
Goal was to determine the extent of (normative) uniformity on international level regarding application of ethical standards in contemporary research of ancient DNA (aDNA), and to assess to which degree this uniformity contributes to the easier implementation of scientific research on aDNA. We conducted a literature scoping review of the online databases Scopus, Web of Science as well as gray literature. The combination of keywords: ethics, ancient DNA, aDNA without any limitations was used. Afterwards the publications were analyzed in reference manager (duplicates and non-relevant literature excluded). Total of 94 publications were found. After the analysis of the results 16 of the publications were excluded as duplicates and 59 as non-relevant publications. The remaining 19 publications were analyzed in detail. The analysis indicated that a majority of relevant publications on the aDNA ethical standards were published in the last 5 years. 12 publications discuss ethical dilemmas on aDNA research regardless of specific population, while 7 publications discuss ethical dilemmas considering specific populations (4 of them deal with the topic of native populations of Americas, 2 of them with native populations of Africa, and 1 of them with remains from ancient Egypt). Information extracted from relevant publications indicate the importance of DNA analysis in the array of anthropological techniques but also emphasize the significance of conducting the research methods on aDNA in accordance with ethical standards. The research community faces the challenge of defining global and/or supranational ethical guidelines, which would define minimum of ethical standards acceptable to different countries, cultures, religions, social groups, and other stakeholders. Recent history indicates to the possibility of misuse of DNA research, in promoting theories aimed at the dominance of certain social groups over others. Results of our research emphasize the importance of unification of ethical principles, application of uniform ethical standards and promotion of a healthy balance between scientific interest in aDNA and respect for cultural, social, religious, and other differences among different stakeholders.
Key words: ancient DNA, ethical guidelines, stakeholders, cultural differences, religion
Presentation number: AG 2
EVALUATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA OF SKELETAL REMAINS FROM PERIOD OF MEDIEVAL BOSNIA
Merima Miralem, Belma Jusić, Mirela Džehverović, Abdurahim Kalajdžić, Amela Pilav, Jasmina Čakar
University of Sarajevo – Institute for genetic engineering and biotechnology, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype analysis is a valuable tool to study human migrations and evolutionary history as well as intrapopulation and interpopulation diversity of human populations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies of skeletal remains from Medieval Bosnia and compare obtained results with the results for the modern Bosnian-Herzegovinian population. Samples of twenty-six skeletal remains, excavated from different medieval necropolis in Bosnia and Herzegovina, were washed and ground to a fine powder, followed by decalcification with 0.5M EDTA. Extraction of DNA was done using optimized phenol-chlorophrom-isoamyl alcohol method with additional purification using filter columns. Sequencing of hypervariable segment I (HVSI) of the control region (CR) as well as analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of isolated mtDNAs was used for mitochondrial DNA haplogroup prediction. Sequences were aligned and analyzed in Bioedit 7.2 software, while for haplogroup prediction Mitomaster was used. This tool utilizes Haplogrep2 with Phylotree 17. For all analyzed samples H haplogroup was predicted which is also a predominant haplogroup in modern Bosnian-Herzegovinian population (more than 50%). Among all samples, two were determined as H5 and the others as H2a sub-haplogroup. Our results indicate the prevalence of H mtDNA haplogroup among the inhabitants of Medieval Bosnia which can be considered as important information in regards to the genetic structure of medieval Bosnian population.
Keywords: mtDNA, ancient DNA, medieval Bosnia, haplogroups, RFLP, HVSI
Presentation number: AG 3
DNA ANALYSIS REVEALED KINSHIP BETWEEN PEOPLE FROM A SMALL COMMUNITY LIVING IN MEDIEVAL BOSNIA
Belma Jusic1, Mirela Dzehverovic1, Edin Bujak2, Amela Pilav1, Jasmina Cakar1
1University of Sarajevo-Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2Department of Archeology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Skeletal remains of 11 individuals, stored in Travnik Homeland Museum, originated from Travnik municipality (localites Klisa-Guca Gora, Alihodze and Glavica-Han Bila) were sampled for DNA extraction. Well preserved teeth were grounded to a fine powder, after washing and subjected to decalcification with 0.5 M EDTA solution during seven day. Ancient DNA was extracted according to an optimized phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extraction technique, and then purified using filter columns. PowerPlex® Fusion System and Investigator® 24plex QS Kit were used for amplification of selected STR markers. Additionally, PowerPlex® Y23 System was used to generate Y-STR haplotypes for male individuals. In general, autosomal STR profiles were successfully generated for all samples. Male sex was determined in eight samples. Comparative analysis of two male aDNA profiles showed matching at 18 out of 22 analyzed autosomal STR loci. Statistical analysis confirmed siblingship with calculated kinship probability (KP) of 99.99996%. Furthermore, statistical analysis of two compared male profiles revealed probability of 97.77112% that they are in half brother-half brother, grandfather-grandchild or uncle-nephew relationship. For other samples, statistical analysis revealed probability of first cousins relationships with KP in the range of 59.48719 to 99.32699%. Additional Y-STR analysis showed that all eight male individuals share the same Y-haplotype confirming kinship through paternal line. Determined Y-haplotypes were found to belong to the J2a haplogroup.
Keywords: ancient DNA, skeletal remains, STR markers, Y-haplogroups, archaeology